URL der Seite: http://www.koek.naturaldyes.de/ushak.de.houses.131122.html

22.11.2013, Michael Bischof

                                            Prdouction of synthetic alizarine
                           Amount                        Price
              (100% stuff in 1000 kg)        (German Reichsmark pro kg)

1869                                                         270,-
1871                            15                         140,-
1873                          100                         120,-
1878                          750                          23,-
1884                        1350                          12,50
1913                        2000                           1,78
1924                        1120                           1,15


(The following text was offered as digital picture and had to be transformed to a text with OCM software. The many formatting mistakes had to be repaired manually. Parentheses by me, M.B.)

Excerpt from a 1892 text

 (J. M. Stöckel, Vienna)

A lot of wool is exported to North America, not washed in most cases, for blankets, carpets and coarse fabrics. It is collected by the market in Ushak, cleaned and washed there and finally spun to yarns. The weight loss is 45-50%.
For washing only running water is used. Preferably from soureces west of Ushak, towards Kula. It is done in villages, who find a  valuable side job in this way.
 In the city the wool is carded (hand-combed) and then hand-spun. 2 foreign enterprisers tried to established mechanical spinning mchines but the government did not permit it as it would have killed many jobs of people in surrounding villages.

The dyeing is in most cases paid by the merchants who finally buy the finished carpets as those expenses are then subtracted from the final price.
The main place of yarn dyeing is Ushak, where there were 8 bigger dye houses and a lot of smaller ones. In addition there were mentionable dye houses in Kula, Gördis and later with the development of the carpet production Ahksar and Demirci. Dye houses are as old as the cottage industry. They used only alum and vitriol (iron sulfate) as mordants.

Red, appearing in a lot differnt nuances, had been done only with madder. In addition Curcuma (Curcuma longa), so called Yellow Berries (Rhamnus tinctoria [wrong name, such a species does not exist - M.B.]) and different materials rich in tanning agents (Quercus aegilops) and white galls. Later Indigo was introduced, which is applied in the form of Indigocarmine (Indigosulfonic acids) for mixed dyes. After 1840 cochineal red appeared as competition of madder reds and through the work of Stefan Alex de Andria it settled there. The industry that produced coal tar dyes in Germany and France got some influence quick. Agents introduced these more easy to apply dyes in said areas and soon the application of Fuchsin, Orange, Rocelline was so common that the  government in Smyrna forbid it. The dye houses in Ushak were not bothered as they were subjugated to Brussa, where such a limitation was not regarded to be necessary. Therefore today these coal tar dyes are in common use.

In most cases these substances were used as additives to so called “basic colours“, to render the dye more vivid, more ardent. Until now people have learnt to use them with said „basic colours“, unfortunately without respect to the aspect of fastness grades, especially the light fastness. This did not improve the old industry of high reputation. It is important to state that coal tar dyes came into use as their application was much easier. There is another motivation for the Western markets: the modern taste.

It is no longer eough to produce the old simple designs, which can be done with the well known old dyes. One demands more complicated designs, a multitude of colour changes, brillant nuancs, which is possible only with the help of synthetic organic dyses. One may expect that with the introduction of the first coal tar dyes to Asia Minor those new dye stuff will be applicated whose light- and air fastness do not fall behind the so called natural dye stuffs and even surpass some of them. We stress the importance of those products of the modern coal tar dye industry which are called „alizarine dyes“. Their application on wool mordanted with chromium hydroxide has gained a great importance in the European fabrication of carpets. The industry in the Orient will not continue to reject them but their introduction is much more cumbersome. As its empirical evidence, which is forced to lean to the tradition, cannot find a counterweight in theoretical knowldge. So its preconceived notions will be cured only with the hope to fetch financial advantages.
It would exceed by far the aim of this report if we would report in detail about the dyeing methods. We restrict to listing the more important drugs and chemical compounds concerning their application.

Madder, the root of Rubia tinctorium, plays an important role in the dyeing environment of Asia Minor, though its cultivation in Europe has nearly lost all importance through the introduction of synthetic alizarine. In the Levant madder is produced in big amount and is called „alizari“ or „lizari“. Dyes done using it perform a high fastness. The wool is mordanted with  alum, potassium sodium tartrate, often with additon of tin salt (chloride) and then dyes with madder. To obtain more yellowish nuances Curcuma is added; to get the reds more fire-like after the mordanting step madder and cochineal are used. In some cases, using older methods, the wool is just dyed with alum, potassium sodium tartrate, and then just madder is used. They are able to obtain brownish and violet safe dyes using mordant of alum and iron sulphate and have learned to top said madder-cochineal combinations with „coal tar dyes“ (Fuchsin). The madder is not only important for producing of  „Garance-(cochineal), but plays a big role in many ground colours. „Alizari“ is a cheap dye stuff in Anatolia.
As mentioned before cochineal is used in more recent times. It is used alone or together with madder. They get flesh-like, rosy red like, carmoisin-red, amaranth-red, cherry red and scarlet nuances. To obtain more orange-like nuances it is used with Curcuma. The cochineal war imported from Marseille. In Ushak, Ghiords and Kula the first carpets were produces with yarns that were solely dyed with cochineal.

Two yellow natural dye material should be emphasized: Curcuma and Persian berries. Curcuma is native in China and Eastern India, the root is called „stretscha“ in Asia Minor. It is a main de material and is mostly used in combinations; dyes done only with it fade quite quick. To dye with it the milled root is heated with water; the dye mateiral dyes without mordants. The seond important material is called Persian berries, native in the Eastern part of Karamaniya, especially in the vicinity of Kayseri. 
Whike it is used very rarely in the occident in Anatolia they produce not only intense yellows with it on alum mordant but they use it especially for matt, light nuances and together with Curcuma and Indigo.

To dye grey and grey-black with iron sulphate in combination with madder and yellow dye material for dark nuances often Valonea as an additional auxilliary is in use, especially if later coal tar dyes are applied.
Fashion colours are obtained  with  different combination, which are established to be as easy as possible by  additions step by step.
Wooden materials and extracts of those (Brazil wood, Red wood, Yellowwood) are not used. The Catechu which is imported to Europe from the Levant and very often applied there is rarely in use, as mordanting with copper sulphate or potassium bichromate are not settled here.

Surveying the whole set of dye operation we realize green nuances done with Persian berries and Indigosulfonic acid; often blendes with different coal tar dyes (Jaune solide, other name: Curcumein, of A. Poirrier and G. Dalsace), or other  yellow and orange azo dyes. The use of picric acid is obsolete.
...one can see how the traditional dyeing methods are combined with the application of the new dye materials, as with rising demands of new market tastes the dyeing part has to keep abreast. As this happens without any scientifical supervision often beauty and numbers of dyes are reached on the expense of dye fastness. This change is important, given into account the renommee and the preciousness of Smyrna carpets. The industry cannot accept the intention of the government not to use „aniline dyes“ on the long run. It would be more rational instead of forbidding them to point to those methods of dyeing that are established in the big carpet factories in Austria and Germany for precious products. The dye fastnesses of occidential products offers more guarantees than those of Asia Minor, doen with the methods reported here.
The venerable success of old methods impresses in the famous old Smyrna carpets - in the new ones the old and the ration new style of dyeing is absent.
"Oesterreichische Monatsschrift für den Orient"
Herausgegeben vom
R e d i g i r t von A. von S c a l a.
„Der ersten Lieferung ist eine mit Text-Illustrationen versehene Monographie über Smyrna-Teppiche aus der Feder des Herrn J. M. Stöckel in Smyrna beigegeben, welche das Ergebniss einer von dem Genannten im Auftrage des Handels-Museums unternommenen Studienreise nach denTeppichdistricten dieser kleinasiatischen Provinz bildet, die sehr ausführlichen Beschreibungen der einzelnen Farbentafeln wurden von Herrn Ür. Alois Riegl, dem Autor des bekannten Werkes „Altorientalische Teppiche", geliefert.“