URL der Seite: http://www.koek.naturaldyes.de/ushak.de.houses.131122.html
22.11.2013, Michael Bischof
Prdouction of synthetic alizarine
(100% stuff in 1000
(German Reichsmark pro kg)
(The following text was offered as
digital picture and had to be transformed to a text with OCM software.
The many formatting mistakes had to be repaired manually. Parentheses
by me, M.B.)
Excerpt from a 1892 text
(J. M. Stöckel, Vienna)
A lot of wool is exported to North America, not washed in most cases,
for blankets, carpets and coarse fabrics. It is collected by the market
in Ushak, cleaned and washed there and finally spun to yarns. The
weight loss is 45-50%.
For washing only running water is used. Preferably from soureces west
of Ushak, towards Kula. It is done in villages, who find a
valuable side job in this way.
In the city the wool is carded (hand-combed) and then hand-spun.
2 foreign enterprisers tried to established mechanical spinning mchines
but the government did not permit it as it would have killed many jobs
of people in surrounding villages.
The dyeing is in most cases paid by the merchants who finally buy the
finished carpets as those expenses are then subtracted from the final
The main place of yarn dyeing is Ushak, where there were 8 bigger dye
houses and a lot of smaller ones. In addition there were mentionable
dye houses in Kula, Gördis and later with the development of the carpet
production Ahksar and Demirci. Dye houses are as old as the cottage
industry. They used only alum and vitriol (iron sulfate) as mordants.
Red, appearing in a lot differnt nuances, had been done only with
madder. In addition Curcuma (Curcuma longa), so called Yellow Berries
(Rhamnus tinctoria [wrong name, such a species does not exist - M.B.])
and different materials rich in tanning agents (Quercus aegilops) and
white galls. Later Indigo was introduced, which is applied in the form
of Indigocarmine (Indigosulfonic acids) for mixed dyes. After 1840
cochineal red appeared as competition of madder reds and through the
work of Stefan Alex de Andria it settled there. The industry that
produced coal tar dyes in Germany and France got some influence quick.
Agents introduced these more easy to apply dyes in said areas and soon
the application of Fuchsin, Orange, Rocelline was so common that
the government in Smyrna forbid it. The dye houses in Ushak were
not bothered as they were subjugated to Brussa, where such a limitation
was not regarded to be necessary. Therefore today these coal tar dyes
are in common use.
In most cases these substances were used as additives to so called
“basic colours“, to render the dye more vivid, more ardent. Until now
people have learnt to use them with said „basic colours“, unfortunately
without respect to the aspect of fastness grades, especially the light
fastness. This did not improve the old industry of high reputation. It
is important to state that coal tar dyes came into use as their
application was much easier. There is another motivation for the
Western markets: the modern taste.
It is no longer eough to produce the old simple designs, which can be
done with the well known old dyes. One demands more complicated
designs, a multitude of colour changes, brillant nuancs, which is
possible only with the help of synthetic organic dyses. One may expect
that with the introduction of the first coal tar dyes to Asia Minor
those new dye stuff will be applicated whose light- and air fastness do
not fall behind the so called natural dye stuffs and even surpass some
of them. We stress the importance of those products of the modern coal
tar dye industry which are called „alizarine dyes“. Their application
on wool mordanted with chromium hydroxide has gained a great importance
in the European fabrication of carpets. The industry in the Orient will
not continue to reject them but their introduction is much more
cumbersome. As its empirical evidence, which is forced to lean to the
tradition, cannot find a counterweight in theoretical knowldge. So its
preconceived notions will be cured only with the hope to fetch
It would exceed by far the aim of this report if we would report in
detail about the dyeing methods. We restrict to listing the more
important drugs and chemical compounds concerning their application.
Madder, the root of Rubia tinctorium, plays an important role in the
dyeing environment of Asia Minor, though its cultivation in Europe has
nearly lost all importance through the introduction of synthetic
alizarine. In the Levant madder is produced in big amount and is called
„alizari“ or „lizari“. Dyes done using it perform a high fastness. The
wool is mordanted with alum, potassium sodium tartrate, often
with additon of tin salt (chloride) and then dyes with madder. To
obtain more yellowish nuances Curcuma is added; to get the reds more
fire-like after the mordanting step madder and cochineal are used. In
some cases, using older methods, the wool is just dyed with alum,
potassium sodium tartrate, and then just madder is used. They are able
to obtain brownish and violet safe dyes using mordant of alum and iron
sulphate and have learned to top said madder-cochineal combinations
with „coal tar dyes“ (Fuchsin). The madder is not only important for
producing of „Garance-(cochineal), but plays a big role in many
ground colours. „Alizari“ is a cheap dye stuff in Anatolia.
As mentioned before cochineal is used in more recent times. It is used
alone or together with madder. They get flesh-like, rosy red like,
carmoisin-red, amaranth-red, cherry red and scarlet nuances. To obtain
more orange-like nuances it is used with Curcuma. The cochineal war
imported from Marseille. In Ushak, Ghiords and Kula the first carpets
were produces with yarns that were solely dyed with cochineal.
Two yellow natural dye material should be emphasized: Curcuma and
Persian berries. Curcuma is native in China and Eastern India, the root
is called „stretscha“ in Asia Minor. It is a main de material and is
mostly used in combinations; dyes done only with it fade quite quick.
To dye with it the milled root is heated with water; the dye mateiral
dyes without mordants. The seond important material is called Persian
berries, native in the Eastern part of Karamaniya, especially in the
vicinity of Kayseri.
Whike it is used very rarely in the occident in Anatolia they produce
not only intense yellows with it on alum mordant but they use it
especially for matt, light nuances and together with Curcuma and Indigo.
To dye grey and grey-black with iron sulphate in combination with
madder and yellow dye material for dark nuances often Valonea as an
additional auxilliary is in use, especially if later coal tar dyes are
Fashion colours are obtained with different combination,
which are established to be as easy as possible by additions step
Wooden materials and extracts of those (Brazil wood, Red wood,
Yellowwood) are not used. The Catechu which is imported to Europe from
the Levant and very often applied there is rarely in use, as mordanting
with copper sulphate or potassium bichromate are not settled here.
Surveying the whole set of dye operation we realize green nuances done
with Persian berries and Indigosulfonic acid; often blendes with
different coal tar dyes (Jaune solide, other name: Curcumein, of A.
Poirrier and G. Dalsace), or other yellow and orange azo dyes.
The use of picric acid is obsolete.
...one can see how the traditional dyeing methods are combined with the
application of the new dye materials, as with rising demands of new
market tastes the dyeing part has to keep abreast. As this happens
without any scientifical supervision often beauty and numbers of dyes
are reached on the expense of dye fastness. This change is important,
given into account the renommee and the preciousness of Smyrna carpets.
The industry cannot accept the intention of the government not to use
„aniline dyes“ on the long run. It would be more rational instead of
forbidding them to point to those methods of dyeing that are
established in the big carpet factories in Austria and Germany for
precious products. The dye fastnesses of occidential products offers
more guarantees than those of Asia Minor, doen with the methods
The venerable success of old methods impresses in the famous old Smyrna
carpets - in the new ones the old and the ration new style of dyeing is
"Oesterreichische Monatsschrift für den Orient"
K. K. ÖSTERR. HANDELS-MUSEUM IN WIEN.
R e d i g i r t von A. von S c a l a.
ACHTZEHNTER JAHRANG. 1892.
VERLAG DES K. K. OSTERR. HANDELS-MUSEUMS.
„Der ersten Lieferung ist eine mit Text-Illustrationen versehene
Monographie über Smyrna-Teppiche aus der Feder des Herrn J. M. Stöckel
in Smyrna beigegeben, welche das Ergebniss einer von dem Genannten im
Auftrage des Handels-Museums unternommenen Studienreise nach
denTeppichdistricten dieser kleinasiatischen Provinz bildet, die sehr
ausführlichen Beschreibungen der einzelnen Farbentafeln wurden von
Herrn Ür. Alois Riegl, dem Autor des bekannten Werkes „Altorientalische